Litertaure Review Part 3 Integral Citations

By: Writing Tips Today

When you write the literature review for your thesis or dissertation, you will need to use integral citations.  In his 1990 publication, John Swales explains the difference between integral and non-integral citations.

In integral citations, the name of the author appears in the sentence itself. However, in non-integral citations, the name of the author normally appears in parenthesis after the sentence, usually by using the author's last name and the year of publication.

Integral citations may take a variety of forms.  Please look at these examples:

According to Smith (2007), funding is one of the main problems which educators face.

Jones (2009) stated that state governements should do more to address the problem.

Planget's theory (2002) is that classroom size is inversely related to the ease of classroom management.

An opposing viewpoint is expressed by by Carlson (2003).

Now match each of the examples above with the description of its form below:

Researcher name as grammatical subject of the sentence  
Researcher name as part of a reporting phrase
Researcher name as agent of a passive sentence
Researcher name as part of a possessive noun phrase 

Please check our site often.  We frequently add new tips on thesis writing!

More Thesis Writing Advice and Tips

About the Author:

Compliments of the Writing Tips Today website.


This Article is Brought to you by:


Writing Related Articles:

Mastering the Skills of Thesis Writing

Presenting a well written thesis depends on many important issues; here we will discuss the basics that university students can examine and emulate, and possibly earn appreciation from the faculty that will evaluate the pa...

By: Kandy Andrew

Secrets of Resume Writing

If there is one skill you need, then resume writing is probably the first and most effective skill that you will have to develop for your job search. Your resume is what sells you as a business proposition to your prospect...

By: Yulin Peng

Plagiarism - Top 10 Ways to Stay Out of Trouble When Writing Your Dissertation, Thesis, Or Paper

With increasing frequency, colleges and universities are making use of Web-based plagiarism checking services to scan papers for stolen material. And the consequences can be dire: at one end of the spectrum, a failing grad...

By: Albert L. , Ph.D

Updated University Related News:


Useful Websites: