Litertaure Review Part 3 Integral Citations

By: Writing Tips Today

When you write the literature review for your thesis or dissertation, you will need to use integral citations.  In his 1990 publication, John Swales explains the difference between integral and non-integral citations.

In integral citations, the name of the author appears in the sentence itself. However, in non-integral citations, the name of the author normally appears in parenthesis after the sentence, usually by using the author's last name and the year of publication.

Integral citations may take a variety of forms.  Please look at these examples:

According to Smith (2007), funding is one of the main problems which educators face.

Jones (2009) stated that state governements should do more to address the problem.

Planget's theory (2002) is that classroom size is inversely related to the ease of classroom management.

An opposing viewpoint is expressed by by Carlson (2003).

Now match each of the examples above with the description of its form below:

Researcher name as grammatical subject of the sentence  
Researcher name as part of a reporting phrase
Researcher name as agent of a passive sentence
Researcher name as part of a possessive noun phrase 

Please check our site often.  We frequently add new tips on thesis writing!

More Thesis Writing Advice and Tips

Writing Articles & Information.
About the Author:

Compliments of the Writing Tips Today website.


This Article is Brought to you by:


Writing Related Articles:

Term Paper Topics

Term paper topics: Term papers will often focus on a central issue or idea that a student will need to investigate.  You need to be sure that you research the topic carefully, covering all of the aspects to the assign...

By: Writing Tips Today

Book Writing Tips to Keep You Writing

Do you get stuck? Here are three big tips that can help you to keep on writing when you don't feel like it. If you are serious about your writing try these book writing tips. 1. “Inch by inch it&rsquo...

By: Joan Clout-Kruse

Cause and Effect Relationships

It is important to clearly identify cause and effect relationships in your academic writing, such as in your essays and dissertations. Identifying cause and effect relationships is important because it elucidates ...

By: Writing Tips Today

Updated Education Related News:


Useful Websites: